#ecorn17 – e-Cornucopia.2017 Teaching with Technology Conference


Conference Website

Oakland University’s e-Cornucopia: Teaching with Technology is an annual one-day technology conference that explores online teaching and learning topics including pedagogy best practices, software, apps, engagement techniques and much more. 2017 marks the 9th consecutive year Oakland University has provided this regional forum for networking and the exchange of ideas.

This conference is intended for higher education faculty, instructional designers, instructional technologists, academic administrators, graduate students and anyone who in interested in incorporating technology into their courses.

New this year! We are introducing the Technology Test Kitchen, which is an area where conference attendees will be able to have hands on experiences with different hardware and software. We will have different ‘Master Chefs’ guiding the experience and sharing how they use the technology but it is meant to be experimental and free form, a kind of maker space for educational technologies!

Session 1: Establishing Learning and Behavioral Expectations

Classrooms often experience the tension been a teacher’s expectation of students and a student’s expectation of the teacher. How can we identify, communicate, and reinforce these expectations to prevent tense student-to-student and student-to-faculty interactions? As a result of this session, participants will be able to differentiate learning and behavioral expectations in the 21st-century university classroom, compare expectations for online and traditional learning environments, and communicate expectations through multiple tools offered in the learning management system (LMS).


Speakers

Dan Arnold – Manager of Support Services in Oakland University’s e-Learning and Instructional Support department

Christina Moore – Media Manager at the Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning at Oakland University

Presentation Slides [PDF]

Notes:

  • Learning Expectations vs Behavorial Expectations
  • There is an interaction between the learning environments along with how faculty interact with one another. There are a variety of expectations on the student side and faculty perspective.
  • Expectations in the syllabus are key. E.g. Technical Skills Required, Technology, Technical Assistance
  • Communicating expectations to get everyone on the same page: Written Communication (syllabus) | Modeling (classroom procedures, discussions in class and online)| Learning Design (activities, feedback, course structure, session routines)
  • Best practices for communicating expections include: 1) before the first day, 2) on the first day, 3) first week, and + 4) throughout the semester as reminders.

  • Piazza wiki was recommended as a way to create a persistent FAQ for a course.
  • Course Design for First Week is Important – Recommendations include setting up expectations via orientation > syllabus (syllabus quiz), beginning of the semester todo checklist, sharing requirements for communications/disccussion board frequency and use/office hours/appointments, ensuring delivering where to go for help (class “citizenship” behaviors), time commitment, additional resources such as LMS help, Dropbox, Open Document, etc.

Session 2 – Technology Test Kitchen

New this year! We are introducing the Technology Test Kitchen, which is an area where conference attendees will be able to have hands on experiences with different hardware and software. We will have different ‘Master Chefs’ guiding the experience and sharing how they use the technology but it is meant to be experimental and free form, a kind of maker space for educational technologies!


Apps in the test kitchen included: Evernote (note taking), Slack (group messaging), mindmeister (mind mapping), educreations (interactive whiteboard), photomath (scan to solve problems), animoto (in class games), Kahoot (in class quizzes  and games), and duolingo (language learning).

Session 3 – Scaffolding Learning with Technology

Scaffolding learning presents opportunities to increase student engagement with the subject matter and introduces alternate learning strategies. Scaffolding technology into a well-designed instructional strategy not only serves to engage students, but also to provide students with practice in honing their own higher order thinking skills. This presentation introduces several teaching strategies in which scaffolding technology becomes a critical component in the learning process. 

Speaker

Greg Allar – Gregory Allar is a Special Lecturer in the International Studies Program at Oakland University. He is also a Research Associate at the Center for Russian, East European and Eurasian Studies at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.


Examples were presented as to how technology was used in classes:

  • Peer Evaluation via Google Doc – Providing students with the ability to easily collaborate on writing documents and sharing feedback.
  • Thinglink – Using to delivery media-rich activities and course content.
  • Youtube – Access to a world of ed content.

Session 4: Gaming the System: Innovative Pedagogical Design

Creating engaging faculty professional development is always challenging. Kellogg Community College re-designed a required Instructional Design course for faculty using gameful learning principles to motivate and engage faculty in innovative professional development.

Tammy Douglas –  Tammy Douglas is Director of Learning Technologies at Kellogg Community College, where she oversees distance education and chairs the Online Course Development Committee.


Notes:

  • It all started with this faculty contract… faculty are required to take: 1) online teaching and learning and 2) instructional design class.
  • Design by committee… outline of topics, basic information, disconnected subject matter, committee disengaged.
  • Culture eats strategy for breakfast lunch, and dinner… the best plans don’t get executed if its not supported.
  • Talk to faculty about what is needed in the classroom, eg. classroom management, learning objectives, assessments, etc.
  • The ID basics: 1) Use of technologies – many faculty are feeling behind at the college, 2) Integration into andragogy, 3) Engagement, 4) Alignment, 5) Assessment, and 6) Administrative focus on success
  • College Focus on Student Success reviews: grades, evaluations, retention, comparative analytics (section level)
  • Redesign > Model the technologies, teach the unwanted content, bite sized pieces, reveal the mysteries of the design process, provide the tools and support.
  • Gameful learning, ed psychology, motivational theories, engagement techniques are key.
  • Educating Players:  Are Games the Future of Education?
  • Games provide models for increasing student success, ideally allowing students to: deeply engage with subject matter, work hard and embrace challenges, take risks; try new things, be resilient in the event of failure. – Fishman, B (November 2016)
  • Game principles: clear learning goals, intrinsic/extrinsic, autonomy, belonging, competence, less risk of failure, exploration, identity play, practice and reinforcement, embedded assessment
  • ID course is delivered in campus LMS, includes the basics but also student profiles – to check assumptions about students in the roster.
  • The Instructional Design Basics class is delivered as a hybrid with a variety of levels.

Lunch and Keynote – Are You Gameful? Understanding (and Improving) Student Academic Engagement

The first step in any learning endeavor is engagement. If your students are not engaged, learning is not possible. Gameful Learning is a practical pedagogical approach that you can use to enhance learner engagement. Being gameful means leveraging our best knowledge about student motivation, and is closely tied to cutting edge ideas such as personalized learning, outcomes-based and standards-based learning, and digital credentials. This talk introduces core concepts for making education more gameful, and a tool called GradeCraft designed to support gameful teaching.

Speaker

Barry Fishman – Barry Fishman is Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Learning Technologies in the University of Michigan School of Information and School of Education.  @barryfishman @gradecraft


Notes:

  • It’s not about the technology it’s about the what and the why.

“Most ideas about eacahing are not new, but not everyone know the old ideas.” – Euclid, c. 300 B.C.E

  • The key challenge about what we do as educators is touch and commitment, and focus and support – as it’s difficult!
  • It’s not about the games for learning (eg. brainpop.com), gamification of learning (classdojo – gaming techniques for the classroom,), ludic learning (take an environment and make it a big game “classcraft”), “gameful learning” is the focus of the keynote.
  • Gameful Learning 
  • Challenge we face: deeply engaged, take challenges, risks, resilient… BUT school is a game but it’s a “terrible” game.
  • Well-designed games: engage players early and keep them, appeal to curiousity, encourage to take risks… people play well-designed games because they are challenging.
  • Can we develop an environment that promotes engaging challenges?
  • 10 game principles: clear learning goals, intrinsic/extrinsic, autonomy, belonging, competence, less risk of failure, exploration, identity play, practice and reinforcement, embedded assessment

  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation – What pushes or pulls individuals to start, sustain, and finally complete activities > focuses attention. Extrinsic rooted in rewards, intrinsic in about emotion/feelings.
  • Support Automony – Keep on learning and loving it… wants to enhance career… it’s best to have motivation based on autonomous because when external variables are removed.

  • Major theories: goal theory, attribution theory, mindset or grit (descriptive theories), self-determination theory (design theory)
  • Goal theory (Paul Pintrich) – mastery or performance as a goal with mastery being preferred. Performance avoid because you want to avoid being viewed as incompetent…
  • Attribution theory – 
  • Ability or Effort – (Carol Dweck) fixed mindset or entity learners vs growth mindset or incremental learners… if you work hard at it you will get better at it!
  • Help students to believe that they can do well. “If you work hard you can do better!”
  • Self-determination theory – automony, belonging, competence… when these are position in a positive way intrinsic motivation is fostered. When they’re elements are present in a negative way, extrinsic motivation is required.


Belonging – desire to interact with, be connected to, and expiring caring for/by others, is about developing secure and satisfying connections in ones social surroundings, we need to experience a sense of belonging and attachment.

Competence – understanding how you can active/attain the outcomes you desire, you have control, being able to perform the actions necessary.

Take Aways

  • Introduction to GradeCraft [Video]

Session 5 – How Do We Promote and Sustain Student Engagement?

Participants in this session will explore the process of creating a comprehensive student engagement plan that can be applied in online education including asynchronous, hybrid and face-to-face classrooms. Participants will learn how to start and sustain student engagement throughout the course. Various technological tools and pedagogical methods will be used to enhance the participant’s mastery of promoting and fostering engaged learning environment.

Speakers

Narine Mirijanian – Director for Business and Health Service programs at Baker College Online

Caryl Walling – Director of Faculty Development at Baker College Online & Center for Graduate Studies in Flint, Michigan

Notes: 

What does student engagement mean to you?


Pedagogical Approach

  • Engages students in the learning process
  • Includes skill instruction
  • Encourages students to reflect on what they are learning and what they already know
  • Motivates students to take ownership of own learning experience 
  • Promotes student interactions and teamwork

How to Start and Sustain Student Engagement

  • First Day – Introductions
  • Weeks – Post welcome and summary for each modules, weekly strategies, keep it going, week summary
  • End of Course – Ask students to post summary
  • Last Day


Student Engagement

  • Beyond traditional discussion board questions: probing questions, compare theories and understanding, analyzing new information, applying knowledge, leverage technology to promote engagement, encouraging student leadership, engaging the indivual learner. “Students take ownership of their own learning.”

#LCCOER – Faculty #OER Panel


Faculty Panel – Moderated by Dr. Cable Green

This panel of faculty will talk about their engagement with open learning materials and how their experience with open licensing enables them to take full advantage of OER in ways not otherwise possible with “closed” educational materials.Speakers

  • Dr. Matthew VanCleave, Professor of Philosophy, Lansing Community College
  • Joseph Mold, Director of Online Learning & Instructional Design, Bay College
  • Dr. Charles Lowe, Associate Professor of Writing, Grand Valley State University

Notes:

  • Edited by Charles Lowe of GVSU and Patel Zemliansky – Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing is a series of 2 volumes of CC-licensed essays written as readings for the first year composition classroom.
  • Benefits of OER via Charles Lowe:
  1. Working on OER projects can be good professional development
  2. Creating OER demonstrates teaching excellence
  3. Collaborating with fellow teachers; commons based peer production
  4. Developing pedagogical theory on creating textbooks for our disciplines which is otherwise lost through outsourcing
  • Bay College Open Educational Resources Video – A campus wide initiative to support student success. OER provides freedom from the textbook. OER allows faculty to use their own expertise rather than have the curriculum be dictated by a textbook publisher.  OER textbooks give a unique voice and campus context and personalized by students. When students pay for a class, they don’t want a textbook to teach them, they want the faculty to provide insight.
  • Dr. Matthew VanCleave, Lansing Community College, wrote an open textbook “Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking“.
  • Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform – Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development > How can we use OER for this important work?

#LCCOER – Creative Commons Licenses Workshop

Attendees will learn about the basics of open licenses (Creative Commons) including how to add open licenses to your work and best practices for attribution.

Notes:

  • Creative Commons FAQ
  • Consider your plans: Local (we can rely somewhat on fair use, library materials are paid for, we can make changes easily), Sharing (fair use is less applicable, because of distribution, subscription materials are not available everywhere), Grants (the founder may have restrictions, greater need for adaptation work, downstream users matter a lot).
  • Teach Act allows you to make copies for spontaneous use under Fair Use of copyrighted materials. However, reusing the same article is not covered under Fair Use. Using CC licenses is beneficial because they are openly licensed.
  • Elements of Licenses (Attribution, Share-Alike, Non-Derivative, Non-Commercial)
  • Currently the Creative Commons License is at 4.0.
  • Creative Commons Wiki
  • Creative Commons License Compatibility Chart

  • Goal is to maximize use and reuse.
  • TASL – Title, author, source, license.
  • CC Atribution 4.0 Creative Commons Marking – guidance of marking up work. E.g. “Chemistry” by OpenStax is licensed CC-BY 4.0.
  • Remixed work can only be shared if the licenses are compatible. 
  • For additional information about licenses see: Creative Commons FAQ 
  • Openly licensed content still has copyright.
  • Creating a CC license picker: https://creativecommons.org/choose/
  • Open Attribute is a browser plugin to capture CC license information.
  • Open Attribution Builder by Open Washington which provides assistance in creating a proper attribution.

#LCCOER – OER in K12 via #GoOpen Initiative


OER in the K-12 through Michigan’s Participation in the #GoOpen Initiative
Speakers:

  • Ann-Marie Mapes, Education Technology Consultant, Michigan Department of Education (MDE)
  • Teresa Fulk, Director of Instruction for Wayland Union Schools
  • Cheryl Wilson, Teacher Technology Consultant at Wayland Union Schools

Notes:

Why OER for K12? 

  1. Personalize learning
  2. Increase student engagement
  3. Customizable
  4. Flexible
  5. Free minimal costs
  6. Savings to be diverted to teaching and learning

“Textbook business in K12 is an $8 Billion (with a B) Business in the US”

MI Open Book Project

  • K-2 In Development
  • Michigan project by teachers for teachers
  • 3-8 Grade Series
  • High School US History
  • Economics

#GoOpen Campaign

  • Launched by US DOE
  • Encourage statewide OER statewide strategy and repository 
  • MI is one of 19 states to #GoOpen
  • Wayland and Marysville are #GoOpen Districts in the State

#GoOpen Community

  • Michigan #GoOpen Districts
  • MACUL
  • Lansing CC, GVSU, Open Michigan, Michigan Colleges Online, Library of Michigan

Systems of Support K12 Educators via Michigan #GoOpen Initiative

  • Awareness
  • OER Repository
  • Professional Learning (MACUL, REMC, MVU)
  • Access to Content
  • #GoOpen District Examplars

Wayland Union #GoOpen District 

  • 5th year in a 1:1 with 7-12 with an iPad
  • 2011-12 – staff received iPads in the spring, iTunesU K12 portal course management systems/blended learning
  • 2012-13 – grades 7-12 have iPads, math received MacBooks, increased blended learning, immediately our Math department began using OERS: ck-12, Engage NY
  • Building knowledge and skills as teachers become more comfortable with flipping instruction, using iPads, seeking free resources to take advantage of 1:1, desire for MacBooks for creation.
  • Grants and funding – MACUL provided MacBook for creation, WUEF provided MacBooks for textbook and Mac Mini for student created textbooks, TRIG – using resources for purchasing devices.

Current OER Use in Wayland

  • MAISA Units (K-8 ELA, 5-8 Social Studies)
  • Engage NY (Math)
  • Ck-12 (Math and Science)
  • Michigan Open Book Project (Social Studies)
  • Creative Commons
  • Continue to seek out others: OpenEd.com, OER Commons, and LearningRegistry.org

 Culture Shift for Teaching

  • Return to the art of teaching (not directed by the textbook)
  • Focus on student needs and standards as opposed to “getting through” the textbook
  • Personalized learning

Future of OER at Wayland

  • Continued implementation of MI Open Books Project
  • #GoOpen Commitment
  • Student created open resources
  • Continued professional development and suppport of OER

#GoOpen Future

  • Establish OER Repository 2017-18
  • Raise Awareness
  • Coordinate professional learning opportunities across organizations
  • #GoOpen districts as exemplars sharing their story
  • Move to “technology enabled transformative personalize learning”

#LCCOER – Michigan Colleges Online #OER Initiative

Advancing OER Adoptions Across MI Community Colleges

Ronda Edwards, Executive Director, Michigan Colleges Online (MCO), Michigan Community College Association (MCCA)

Notes:

Goals:

  • Improving Student Success
  • Lowering Costs for Students
  • Increasing Inter-Institutional Faculty Collaboration

Student Success:

  • Completion
  • Passing with a C- or better grade
  • Course grade
  • Enrollment intensity in current tea
  • Enrollment intensity in next term

Statewide Steering Committee

  • Representation from all 28 community colleges
  • Training/webinars
  • Data collection
  • Repository

Survey on Open Textbook Usage

  • 14 colleges reporting
  • 120 courses
  • $1,523,200 savings reported ($100 textbook cost) 2.6 million if you include the full price current textbook
  • Disciplines using an Open Textbook: (colleges using)
  • Business Law (2)
  • Economics (2)
  • Biology (3)
  • Anatomy and Physiology (5)
  • US History (6)
  • Statistics (2)
  • Pre-algebra (2)
  • Chemistry (3)
  • Sociology (4)
  • Geography (2)
  • Physics (2)
  • Psychology (5)

Repository for the State of Michigan via MCO

https://www.oercommons.org/hubs/mco

  • Launched this Fall
  • Michigan Colleges Online Hub is hosted by OER Commons
  • Connections to over 65,000 resources
  • Low maintenance costs
  • Authoring tools
  • Training
  • Collections on the MCO Hub including curated discipline collections
  • Groups on the MCO Hub highlight each college’s contribution
  • Users can tag, rate, review, save, note, and contribute content
  • Faculty Grants – Adoption (Macomb, Northwestern, Lansing CC, Mott Community College) using open textbooks.
  • Faculty Grants – Adaption (Mott CC, Lansing CC, MidMichigan, Kirkland CC) have Psychology and Communication, American and World History and Cell Biology and Human Genetics courses adding ancillary and supplementary resources in addition to Openstax textbooks.
  • Faculty Grants – Development (Lansing CC) develop Spanish multimedia ancillary resources using virtual partners, interactive multimedia, practice exercises etc. Forensic Science (Mott CC, Genesee Career Institute) to create a full open textbook on Forensic Science. (Lansing CC) will develop a Fashion textbook and workbook on the Principles and Elements of Design.

Next for MCO OER

  • More professional development with staff/faculty/authors
  • Inter-Institutional sharing/collaboration
  • Research 
  • Z Degrees – Zero cost for an entire degree for instructional materials…

2017 #OER Summit at Lansing Community College #LCCOER

fullsizerender-24“Open Education: The Moral, Business & Policy Case for OER” by Dr. Cable Green
Dr. Cable Green, Director of Open Education, Creative CommonsThe Internet, increasingly affordable computing and bandwidth, open licensing, open access journals and open educational resources (OER) provide the foundation for a world in which a higher education can be a basic human right. Governments and foundations are supporting this shift with a move to open policies: requiring public access to publicly (and foundation) funded resources. Dr. Cable Green, Director of Open Education at Creative Commons, will provide an overview of open licensing and OER, and discuss specific examples where institution, provinces / states, nations and foundations have moved the default on funding from “closed” to “open.” He will also explore new OER projects that are pushing open education further into the mainstream.

Notes:

  • 29 colleges and universities and K12 districts with 300 attendees at the 2017 Lansing Community College OER Summit.
  • Lansing CC has an “Operation 100%” where all students will be successful. In order to meet this goal there was a need for equity and zeroing in on textbook costs.

47 faculty in 15 courses saving over $800,000 at Lansing Community College

  • Goal at Lansing is to get zero degrees, for students and faculty. Education needs to be about sharing, knowledge, and possibilities for all students.
  • Digital + Open Licensing + Internet = Share at the Cost of Zero
  • Internet Enables Copyright Forbids
  • OER is any kind of teaching material – textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans, videos, recordings, exams that provides:
    • Free and Unfettered Access
    • Free Copyright Permissions to Engage in the 5 R Activities
      • Retain
        • Keep, make, and maintain and own copies
      • Reuse
        • Use in a wide range of ways
      • Revise
        • Adapt, modify, and improve
      • Remix
        • Combine two or more
      • Redistribute
        • Share with others
  • Open is not equal to Free – Open is Free + Legal Permissions to be able to use the 5R’s.
  • Retain is fundamental because if you don’t have a copy you can’t reuse, revise, or remix.

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    • Consumer Price Index January 2006 – 2016
      • 88% textbooks have gone up
      • 21% all goods
      • 63% tuition
    • Average cost of a textbook $174 for highest enrollment courses
  • US PIRG Report, 2014
    • 65% of students decided against buying a required textbook because of cost
    • 50% of students said that cost of textbooks impacted how many and which classes they took
    • 82% students said that they would have done better if they had access to the resources in the course
  • 2016 Student Textbook and Course Materials Survey from Florida Virtual Campus

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  • creativecommons.org – CC is a global non-profit organization.
  • Licenses via CC
    • Attribution – Not optional, if someone uses your work they have to give credit
    • ShareAlike – Optional, if you take my work and change it, you have to share
    • NonCommercial – Optional, you cannot sell it
    • NoDerivatives – Optional, you cannot change it (in education, try to stay away from this)

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>>> Enter Renewable Assignments >>>

Let’s spend time in our courses with students to contribute to the global community, leveraging real world applicable assignments… and sharing back using open content.

  • Renewable Assignments
    • Students see value
    • Teachers see value
    • The world is a better place in the end… eg. Flint Water Crisis analysis in a political science and statistics classes… and contribute this work to an open textbook resources…
  • How is OER changing K12 Education?

$130 million per year is spent in the state of Washington on K12 Textbooks

  • Textbooks in Washington are:
    • Books are on average 7-10 years old.
    • Paper only books.
    • Students can’t write/highlight in books.
    • Student can’t keep books at the end of the year
    • All rights reserved and teachers can’t update.
    • Parents often pay for lost paper books.
    • Isn’t there a better way? Rather than spending $130 million per year, let’s spend some money in the state to develop our own OER resources in the state! See Open Washington Network
  • openupresources.org 
  • New Zealand Creative Commons
  • Leicester City Council
  • Poland – 50% of kids cannot afford resources. “naszelementarz”
  • Lumen Learning Textbook Cost Calculator
  • Benefits of OER
    • Increate Access – open access license materials provide
    • Save Money – repurposing financial aid spend on static textbooks for other pressing student financial needs.
    • Keep Content Relevant, Effective and High Quality – Fix error immediately!
    • Empower Faculty – Give faculty the best content and the ability to adapt content for benefiting students.
  • OER Initiative – How to advance on your campus:
    • Raise Awareness
    • College Support for Adaption and Adoption (Release Time, Instructional Designer and Staff Support, Stipends)
    • Funding (Rededicate funds for the campus to innovative efforts…)
    • Creation and Adaption of OER in Tenure and Promotion

Publicly funding projects should be openly licensed, we as taxpayers are paying for it!

There is tremendous potential in leveraging open education resources in education. How can we transform teaching and learning using OER?

#eLearning2017 – Plagiarism Detected: A Practical Guide to Judicious Investigation of Suspected Academic Misconduct

Presenter:

  • Christian Moriarty, Assistant Professor, JD MA, St. Petersburg College

Notes:

  • Law and ethics of academic plagiarism.
    • In loco parentis (of a teacher or other adult responsible for children, in the place of a parent.) is dead, long live procedure!
    • FERPA – disclosure only to school officials with legitimate educational interest.
      • Student papers, assignments, assessments ARE education records.
  • Syllabus language
    • A syllabus is a contract
      • Ensure syllabus is complete and robust as far as all course and campus policies.
      • Consent, consent, consent
      • Signature page of syllabus, confirmation quiz, or other assignment – this confirms their agreement.
    • Standards of proof
      • Arbitrary and capricious (I’m not out to get you…)
      • Preponderance of the evidence (51%)
  • Plagiarism software
    • Highly recommended, not for gotcha, rather use it for teaching and a learning tool.
    • THEY must submit (student needs to take action and not the instructor submitting for them) AND give consent (they maintain ownership of the content).
      • If either of these is not true, you MUST remove identifying information .
      • If student desires not to use, they could be provided with alternative validation methods.
    • Googling parts of the paper is fine
    • HOWEVER: you should not ask for students’ papers that are not in your class, EVEN with consent
  • If plagiarism detected, then institution policies.
    • Get a second opinion
    • Inform administration
    • Set-up “informational”meeting with student preferable in person
      • Do not record, unless granted by student.
      • Be conversational and polite, not accusatory so that student doesn’t start on the defensive.
        • Present paper and ask probing questions
        • Inquire on details of sources
        • Where did you get this information?
        • If student admits, they may not be aware it is cheating, genuinely!
        • Next step is to invoke institutional procedure.
      • Teachable Moment
        • Refer back to syllabus with it’s clear statements of what plagiarism is and what it’s ramifications and punishments are…
        • Use pre-printed form describing the allegation and the punishment – should be complete process including appeal process.
          • If admission or “reasonable” excuse consider lighter punishment.
          • If moving forward, create a paper trail.
  • Recommended for institutions to have a database of students who have plagiarized.
  • Be aware of paper mills and the difficulty in catching them.
  • Use introduction papers/discussion posts at beginning of semester to compare writing style and ability.
  • Use proctoring at least once during the semester (students go to campus testing center, agreed upon remote proctor, proctoring software).