DEVELOPING SOCIAL PRESENCE IN ONLINE CLASSES
Over the past decade, the Internet has had a profound impact on higher education, enabling the phenomenal growth of online learning. The altered learning environments created by web-based courses not only eliminate barriers of time and space, providing increased access to higher education, they challenge our traditional notions of teaching and learning. A common concern among educators is that the mediated nature of online learning might prevent students from developing the sense that they are interacting with others, which social learning theories suggest supports learning. The antidote to this issue is the development of social presence in online classes. Drawing from her recent co-edited book, Social Presence in Online Learning, Dr. Karen Swan will explore the notion of social presence and its importance to the success of online classes. Attention will be paid to learning designs and teaching strategies that support the development of social presence.
Karen Swan is the Stukel Professor of Educational Research and a Research Associate in the Center for Online Learning, Research and Service (COLRS) at the University of Illinois Springfield. For the past 20 years, she has been teaching online, researching online learning, and writing extensively about her experiences. She received the Online Learning Consortium (OLC) award for Outstanding Individual Achievement, National University Technology Network (NUTN) Distinguished Service Award, and the Burks Oakley II Distinguished Online Teaching Award for her work in this area. She is also an OLC Fellow and a member of the International Adult and Continuing Education Hall of Fame.
- What is social presence?
- “Social Presence: What Is It And Why Does It Matter?“
- The degree in which one is perceived as a “real person” in medicated communication.
- Social Presence = Quality of a Medium – There is a range of media from text to video to provide an element of immediacy.
- Social Presence Theory, Media Richness Theory, Affective Channel Capacity
- Social Presence in e-Learning Article
- Tips: Use names when communicating with students online. Sharing social experiences. Sharing interactions and personalities. Ability to project identities.
- Community of Inquiry Framework – Social / Cognitive / Teaching Presence
- Social presence translates to actual learning, perceived learning, and higher satisfaction of students in courses.
“online communication is an excellent medium for social interaction“
- Quality Matters is helpful in the “design” of the course. Whereas, COI is social constructivist measures “during” the course.
- Social presence is a mediating variable between teaching and cognitive presence.
- Verbal immediacy behaviors can lesson the psychological distance in online classes.
- Use ice breakers and initial courses activities to encourage trust
- Model the use of verbal social presence indicators
- Encourage students to engage and share their course experiences.
- Student learning is related to quantity and quality of postings in online discussions.
- Use discussions as a requirement in grading
- Use rubrics
- Require students to respond to other students
- Stress unique nature of discussions in student orientations
- Learning occurs socially within communities of practice.
- Course design can increase social presence. You need a place for students to interact.
- Include multiple opportunities for discussion
- Timely feedback in assignments and tests
- Instructors develop social presence through their interactions with students in a variety of activities.
- Assessment feedback.
- Audio feedback.
- Reference student activities in feedback.
- The quality and quantity of instructor interactions with students is linked to student learning.
- Clear expectations
- Provide timely and supportive feedback
- Establish communication expectations as far as instructor response time for email, etc.
- Instructor social presence and social presence of peers are unique.
- Instructor social presence related to perceived learning
- Student social presence is related to student satisfaction
- Social presence develops over time.
- Model use and sustain over time throughout the course
- Greater learning from scaffolding.
- Vicarious interaction in online course discussion may be an important source of learning. AKA Lurkers who read and not post still learn.
- Students will do what you expect them to do. If you treat them like prisoners they will not perform. Trust your students. Incorporate social elements in a variety of technology mediums from synchronous to asynchronous – from email to announcements to text in a variety of methods – text, audio, photo, videos.
Media alone doesn’t establish social presence, people do, yet we need to deliberately support the development of social presence by leveraging media and technologies to expand learning because we know learning is a social process.
Michigan Colleges Online is pleased to announce the 2017 MI OER Summit – a gathering of OPEN enthusiasts and those who are interested and eager to learn, network and advocate. This year’s event is hosted by Kellogg Community College (Battle Creek, MI) at the Binda Performing Arts Center on September 22, 2017.
The keynote for the Summit is provided by Dr. Robin DeRosa – professor and chair of Interdisciplinary Studies at Plymouth State University, New Hampshire.
“Harnessing the Power of OPEN: How Open Education Can Transform Our Assignments, Courses, and Colleges”
In this presentation, Robin will focus on how we can come together as a community of learners to transform courses, assignments, and ultimately, our public colleges and universities. With a special focus on Open Educational Resources and Open Pedagogy, Robin will offer both ideas to re-inspire a sense of mission in public college instructors and examples of non-disposable assignments that will get students actively contributing to the knowledge commons. The presentation will introduce participants to the idea of connected learning, and offer new ways of conceiving of course architecture to better link students with their scholarly and professional communities of practice. Those who are fluent with using new technologies and/or OERs in their courses and those who are just beginning to explore and learn are equally encouraged to attend.
- Book Chapter: “From OER to Open Pedagogy: Harnessing the Power of OPEN” [PDF]
- Why are we charging students to access books in literature that are in the public domain?
- Robin funded a collaborative project that was built with alums, incoming students, and professors. Students were paid to help out of her own pocket. Created a OER Early American Lit Research Assistants project. So with day 1 in the Fall semester, the project was done.
- Project continues with students and teachers adding, improving, and sharing with multimedia contributions.
- Hypothes.is was used for collaborative annotations.
- An open text can be: interactive, collaborative, dialogic, dynamic, empowering, contributory, current, accessible, multimedia, public, and free.
- A social justice movement is what OER is all about. – Robin DeRosa
- 56% of students pay more than $300 per semester and 20% of students pay more than $500 per semester on textbooks.
- Students worry more about paying for books than worry about paying for college.
- The REAL Cost of College = tuition, course materials, transportation, child care costs, food, etc.
- In which domains does your teaching engage? Survive > Know > Understand > Thrive > Contribute > Transform
- Open pedagogy is the piece that happens when students are producers of knowledge not just consumers.
- “I don’t want to join a movement focused on replacing crappy expensive textbooks with crappy free textbooks.”
- OPEN is about access to knowledge and access to knowledge creation. – Robin DeRosa
- Resource: “Opensem: A Student-Generated Handbook for the First Year of College“
- Resource: “Interdisciplinary Studies: A Connected Learning Approach“
- Open Pedagogy Resource: “Project Management for Instructional Designers“
- WikiEDU can provide assistance to help students create open content and “non-disposable assignments”.
- Writing Op-Ed is another example of a “non-disposable assignment”.
- Areas of Caution: Digital redlining and the digital divide are real and insidious. Open is not the opposite of private. EdTech is selling something. Open is a process not a panacea.
OPEN is about access to knowledge and access to knowledge creation. – Robin DeRosa
Open Education: Putting the PUBLIC back in public Higher Ed.
Summer Retreat for the Educational Technology Organization begins at the Kettunen Center with just over 30 attendees from community colleges and universities across the state.
Tackling Wicked Problems Using Design Thinking
Dr. Leigh Graves Wolf, Michigan State University
The goals of the workshop are two-fold. First, participants will engage in an embodied experience using design thinking. This will give participants first-hand and participatory knowledge of design thinking techniques and processes. Second, participants will be using these design thinking methods to address a “wicked problem” identified by ETOM, which will produce solutions (and questions) for the ETOM retreat.
Our presenter is Dr. Leigh Graves Wolf. Leigh Graves Wolf is a teacher-scholar and her work centers around online education, emerging technologies and relationships mediated by and with technology. She has worked across the educational spectrum from K12 to Higher to further and lifelong. She has been a disc jockey, network administrator, teacher, instructional technologist and now professor. She believes passionately in collaboration and community and is currently the Assistant Director of the MSU Hub for Innovation in Learning & Technology, and academic specialist in the Dean’s office in the MSU College of Education, and a fixed-term Associate professor of Educational Technology at Michigan State University.
- Session Materials
- How can we use Design Thinking to tackle this wicked problem: “Adequate Assessment of Online Classes”
Design Thinking is a mindset. Design Thinking is about having an intentional process in order to get new, relevant solutions that create positive impact. It’s human-centered. It’s collaborative. It’s optimistic. It’s experimental. – Eleanor Horowitz
British Design Council Double Diamond
The IBM Loop
Design Thinking for Libraries
Rules of Design Thinking
- The human rule – all design activity is ultimately social in nature
- The ambiguity rule – design thinkers must preserve ambiguity
- The re-design rule – all design is re-design
- The tangibility rule – making ideas tangible always facilitates communication
- Diversity, Empathy, Ambiguity —> Possibilities then open up…
A wicked problem is a social or cultural problem that is difficult or impossible to solve for as many as four reasons: incomplete or contradictory knowledge, the number of people and opinions involved, the large economic burden, and the interconnected nature of these problems with other problems. (Kolko, 2012)
- Attendees split up to work in teams to attempt to address: “Adequate Assessment of Online Classes”
Michigan Colleges Online Update
- Save the Date for the Fall Conference, October 27, located at Mid Michigan Community College.
- Online Enrollments – CHLOE report, is Online Growth Rate Slowing Down? ITC enrollment report indicated a 1% increase from Fall 2015-16. Age of online students 53% are 18-25, 44% are 26+. MCO reports up 1-2% with a total of 66,115 enrollments.
- What is the cause of flat enrollment growth rates? What are some strategies to move the needle with online enrollment?
- SARA – 47 states CA, FL, and MA are not currently members. SARA members need to be posting a SARA Student Complaint Process.
- MCO OER Repository Initiative
- Goals: Improve student success and completion, lower costs for students, increasing inter-institutional faculty collaboration
- Steering Committee: Faculty, IDs, DE Admins, Librarians
- oercommons.org/hubs/mco (402 assets shared in last year, with 30 uniquely authored)
- Faculty grants for adoption (4), adaption projects (5), and development projects (3)
- MI OER Summit – September 22, 2017 hosted by Kellogg Community College. Call for proposals due June 23.
- MR Technologist Program: Kellogg CC, GVSU, Lansing CC, GRCC, Mid-Michigan, Lake Michigan – program received JRCERT accreditation.
- New certificate programs coming: Computed Tomography Tech, Electroencephalogram Tech
- Help Desk Initiative – Kirtland, KVCC, LMC, NCMC, Mott, provides 24/7 model that augments your campus help desk. Provides for CRAC Guidelines and SARA.
- Collaborative Purchases: NetTutor, TechSmith, ZOOM, ReadSpeaker
- Focused sessions on student orientation, virtual reality, course quality, encouraging support for online learning across campus, etc.
Attendees will learn about the basics of open licenses (Creative Commons) including how to add open licenses to your work and best practices for attribution.
- Creative Commons FAQ
- Consider your plans: Local (we can rely somewhat on fair use, library materials are paid for, we can make changes easily), Sharing (fair use is less applicable, because of distribution, subscription materials are not available everywhere), Grants (the founder may have restrictions, greater need for adaptation work, downstream users matter a lot).
- Teach Act allows you to make copies for spontaneous use under Fair Use of copyrighted materials. However, reusing the same article is not covered under Fair Use. Using CC licenses is beneficial because they are openly licensed.
- Elements of Licenses (Attribution, Share-Alike, Non-Derivative, Non-Commercial)
- Currently the Creative Commons License is at 4.0.
- Creative Commons Wiki
- Creative Commons License Compatibility Chart
- Goal is to maximize use and reuse.
- TASL – Title, author, source, license.
- CC Atribution 4.0 Creative Commons Marking – guidance of marking up work. E.g. “Chemistry” by OpenStax is licensed CC-BY 4.0.
- Remixed work can only be shared if the licenses are compatible.
- For additional information about licenses see: Creative Commons FAQ
- Openly licensed content still has copyright.
- Creating a CC license picker: https://creativecommons.org/choose/
- Open Attribute is a browser plugin to capture CC license information.
- Open Attribution Builder by Open Washington which provides assistance in creating a proper attribution.
OER in the K-12 through Michigan’s Participation in the #GoOpen Initiative
- Ann-Marie Mapes, Education Technology Consultant, Michigan Department of Education (MDE)
- Teresa Fulk, Director of Instruction for Wayland Union Schools
- Cheryl Wilson, Teacher Technology Consultant at Wayland Union Schools
Why OER for K12?
- Personalize learning
- Increase student engagement
- Free minimal costs
- Savings to be diverted to teaching and learning
“Textbook business in K12 is an $8 Billion (with a B) Business in the US”
MI Open Book Project
- K-2 In Development
- Michigan project by teachers for teachers
- 3-8 Grade Series
- High School US History
- Launched by US DOE
- Encourage statewide OER statewide strategy and repository
- MI is one of 19 states to #GoOpen
- Wayland and Marysville are #GoOpen Districts in the State
- Michigan #GoOpen Districts
- Lansing CC, GVSU, Open Michigan, Michigan Colleges Online, Library of Michigan
Systems of Support K12 Educators via Michigan #GoOpen Initiative
- OER Repository
- Professional Learning (MACUL, REMC, MVU)
- Access to Content
- #GoOpen District Examplars
Wayland Union #GoOpen District
- 5th year in a 1:1 with 7-12 with an iPad
- 2011-12 – staff received iPads in the spring, iTunesU K12 portal course management systems/blended learning
- 2012-13 – grades 7-12 have iPads, math received MacBooks, increased blended learning, immediately our Math department began using OERS: ck-12, Engage NY
- Building knowledge and skills as teachers become more comfortable with flipping instruction, using iPads, seeking free resources to take advantage of 1:1, desire for MacBooks for creation.
- Grants and funding – MACUL provided MacBook for creation, WUEF provided MacBooks for textbook and Mac Mini for student created textbooks, TRIG – using resources for purchasing devices.
Current OER Use in Wayland
- MAISA Units (K-8 ELA, 5-8 Social Studies)
- Engage NY (Math)
- Ck-12 (Math and Science)
- Michigan Open Book Project (Social Studies)
- Creative Commons
- Continue to seek out others: OpenEd.com, OER Commons, and LearningRegistry.org
Culture Shift for Teaching
- Return to the art of teaching (not directed by the textbook)
- Focus on student needs and standards as opposed to “getting through” the textbook
- Personalized learning
Future of OER at Wayland
- Continued implementation of MI Open Books Project
- #GoOpen Commitment
- Student created open resources
- Continued professional development and suppport of OER
- Establish OER Repository 2017-18
- Raise Awareness
- Coordinate professional learning opportunities across organizations
- #GoOpen districts as exemplars sharing their story
- Move to “technology enabled transformative personalize learning”