#ECORN18 – e-Cornucopia 2018 Teaching with Technology Conference

For 10 years, Oakland University has organized a conference to focus on sharing best practices among faculty in leveraging technology in teaching. With over 16 sessions on a variety of topics, this event brings together faculty and #edtech specialists to envision the future of teaching.

Universal Design for Learning with (and without) Technology

Christina Moore and Judith Ableser, Oakland University
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework and set of guidelines that increases access and removes barriers to learning. UDL practices include multiple ways to motivate students (engagement), to present content (representation), and for students to demonstrate their learning (action/expression). While technology use is not a required component of UDL, it is often used to expand UDL implementation. This presentation explain how UDL course design can be implemented in no-tech, low-tech, and high-tech ways. Presenters will provide a guide with activity and tool examples, explain and demonstrate select examples and tech tools, and consider challenges in implementing UDL with technology, such as resources and accessibility. Participants will use the guide to determine how UDL might work in their classrooms with (and without) technology.


  • Discussions on the benefits and challenges of UDL. Time, resources, buy-in, students learning the technology or having the technology are challenges. Opportunities include: creativity, meeting students where they are, finding relevance for learning, fresh approaches in delivering content…

  • How can we address these concerns? Let students choose level of tech use, ask students about their concerns, recognize limitations, worthwhile investments.
  • Legal concerns: Digital Accessibility Compliance – Accessibility and UDL compliment each other. However, challenges do exist eg. closed-captioning, transcripts, alt-text, etc.
  • Recommendations for Accessibility: Get aware, be aware of campus resources to support ADA, determine what tech best serves students, identify what measures can be taken to meet accessibility and UDL. Treat accessibility as a process.
  • CAST: http://www.cast.org
  • NCUDL: http://www.udlcenter.org

Wading Through the EdTech Hype – What is the Next Big Technology?

Richard Schilke, Texas A&M University-Central Texas

What is the next technology to “disrupt” or “save” higher education? This presentation looks at emerging technology and provides tools for identifying the right instructional technology solutions for your institution.

  • Technology is a tool… does it: make things easier, more efficient, more effective? If so, use it!
  • Use #edtech to: solve problems, make financial sense, matches your infrastructure/strategic plan, and finally that users can and will actually use.
  • What’s coming? Challenges: rising costs of college, student debt, the future of highered – does a degree matter? Big money is flowing into #EdTech, 2017 $1.2 billion in technology funding. What are we waiting for? When will technology disrupt education? Get ready: Technology is going to end higher education as we know it.
  • 2017 Gartner Hype-Cycle for Education

On the Rise > Li-Fi, Blockchain in Education, Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality Applications in Education, Artificial Intelligence Education Applications, Tin Can API

At the Peak > Affective Computing in Education, Classroom 3D Printing, Digital Assessment, SaaS SIS, Learning Analytics

Sliding Into the Trough > Competency-Based Education Platforms, Bluetooth Beacons, Institutional Analytics, Open Microcredentials, Big Data in Education, Adaptive Learning Platforms, Adaptive E-Textbooks, Student Retention CRM

Climbing the Slope > Gamification, Integration Brokerage

  • NMC Horizon Report Preview – 2018
    • Analytics, Makerspaces, Adaptive Learning, AI, Mixed Realities, Robotics
  • The Big 4
    • Virtual Reality
    • Augmented Reality
    • Artificial Intelligence
    • Blockchain
  • Challenges: Ethics, Privacy, Digital Literacy, Accessibility, Previous Failures (MOOCs), Belief in Technology – Itself – as Disruption, Fear of Change
  • Be Aware: serious money is behind attempts to disrupt, alternatives are on the horizon, technology will play a major role.
  • Stay Informed: EDUCAUSE, e-Literate, Emerging EdTech (Kelly Walsh), Learning
  • Ecosystem (Daniel Christian), Prof Hacker, Teaching and Learning (Joshua Kim).

First Steps to Creating Digitally Accessible Learning Content

Dan Arnold, Nic Bongers and Christina Moore, Oakland University

This interactive session will provide easy first steps for faculty who are looking to create digitally accessible content. Learn what you can do now to make content accessible for students with impairments, and how these simple changes can benefit all students.

The person with the disability must be able to obtain the information as fully, equally, and dependably as a person without a disability.

  • ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
  • Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)

Digital Accessibility – Essential for Some, Beneficial for All

  • Standards essential for less than 10% with impairments
  • Beneficial for other like learning disabilities
  • Beneficial for life needs (eg. captions)

Top 6 – Common Accessiblity Features for Faculty

    • Text Appearance, Color, Weblinks, Sequence, Images, Captions/Transcripts


Keynote Speaker

We are excited to have Robbie K. Melton, Ph.D. from Tennessee State University with us to discuss How Smart Technologies Impact Teaching and Learning.

The rise of connected smart technologies provides new opportunities for transforming teaching and learning. This presentation will address the possibilities and challenges of smart technologies (EduGadgets) and how they impact teaching and learning as data driven tools for improving academic and social performance. Technology will be showcased that highlights the latest innovations and emerging trends in wearables, mobile devices, health and fitness aids, STEM, mixed realities (VR/AR/Gamification/Holograms).

  • 1Appologist
  • Major innovations happen every 90 days… things have changed. Something new comes out…

“Never before in history has innovation offered promise of so much to so many in so short a time.” – Bill Gates

  • Impact of SmartPhones – Used for guidance in missions, GPS, Phonesat (NASA project for creating satellites with phones…)

  • Earbud Translators
  • Samsung Instant Translator
  • Smart Diapers, Smart Pillow etc.
  • Smart Paper, Smart Textbooks
  • Cleveland Museum
  • Kobo 2.5 million FREE books

How can all this technology be used in education?

Principles of Designing Games for Learning – A Brief Introduction

Gerald Stapleton, University of Illinois College of Medicine

The use of serious game design for learning activities is growing in health professions education and other professional development fields. This presentation will provide an overview of the pedagogical foundations that support learning through games and provide tips such as the author’s Seven Keys to PERFECT Games that teachers can employ to help guide them in the development of games for learning. Examples of the use of games for learning and resources available to educators will be discussed.

Why games?

  • Active learning, immediate feedback, active discovery, develop new kinds of comprehension. (Magennis and Farrell – 2005)
  • A serious game is a game to train or education users in a way that is entertaining.
  • Student can practice, gain kills, in an active way.
  • Game design: David Kolb’s Experience Learning Cycle – Learner needs to be engaged and involved.
  • Game features: Goal orientated, rule based, consequence, and rewards.
  • Bauman’s Layered Learning Model
  • Learning Principles for Good Games (James Paul Gee) – 36 learning principles.

7 Keys “PERFECT”

  1. Problem Solving (Challenge and story, active learning, goals identified, interaction, structure, rules)
  2. Empowerment (Co-design, customization, identity, agency/automation, multiple routes)
  3. Risk (Actions lead to consequences, learning explores with calculated risk of failure, consequences minimized, leading to the opportunities to explore multiple strategies in a safe environment)
  4. Feedback (Interaction, incremental programs, motivivation is grounded in knowing where you are, knowing you’re goal, knowing the path, knowing what you need to work on to succeed)
  5. Edge (Pleasantly frustrating – level of difficult is challenging but doable with practice)
  6. Context (Situation meaning, just in Time knowledge)
  7. Transfer (Generalizability, games a model-reasoning, explore, knowledge sharing)

e-Cornucopia.2018 celebrated 10 years of teaching with technology. However, this is the last conference planned. With many conference opportunities such as OLC, UPCEA, and ETOM and A4EOE on the local level, Oakland has decided to support these other events, including the Great Lakes Regional Student Success Conference through a technology track.

Conference Recap: e-Cornucopia.2018 Takeaways

Eric Kunnen and Matt Roberts from GVSU’s eLearning Team at e-Cornucopia.2018 – Oakland University


#ETOM18 – Highlights from the Educational Technology Organization of Michigan Spring Retreat

ETOM 2018 Spring Retreat
June 11-12, 2018 at the Kettunen Center – Tustin, MI

The Spring Retreat is a yearly ETOM event with an administrative focus on distance education and educational technology.  Gathering together to compare notes, share best practices, and discuss current issues and trends in online and hybrid teaching and learning provides great value for directors of online programs, instructional designers/technologists, and faculty.


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Distance Education the HLC Perspective

Presenter: Dr. Tom Bordenkircher

Session Description: Distance Education the HLC Perspective – Tom Bordenkircher, Ph.D., Higher Learning Commission

Dr. Bordenkircher will provide a general overview of regional accreditation and the expectations of institutions accredited through the Higher Learning Commission. There will be particular focus on federal and commission rules for distance education courses and programs. He will then discuss best practices as when offering programs at distance. Common pitfalls and red flags will be reviewed through provided case studies. This will also be an opportunity to provide feedback to the HLC on the criteria and accreditation process. This session will end with a look forward to the future of accreditation and proposed changes on the horizon.


  • Keys for assurance documentation is all about “evidence”.
  • 75% or more offered by distance methods are Distance Courses.
  • 50% or more of courses in a program are Distance Programs.
  • HLC approves capacity to offer distance and/or correspondence education.
  • Program has an entrance and an exit and you get a credential.
  • Peer reviewer – examine blended or hybrid courses to see if they conform to the Distance definition.
  • Investigate if it’s possible to “cobble” together a Distance degree with existing distance courses.
  • The level of faculty interaction is a distinct difference between distance education and correspondence courses.
  • Distance education: Education that uses one or more of the following technologies to deliver instruction to students who are separated from the instructor and to support regular and substantive interaction between the students and the instructor, synchronously or asynchronously. Technology may include: internet, 1 and 2 way transmissions through broadcast.
  • Higher ed has only 60% of market with 40% being for profit. And this is still changing.
  • HLC does not review student identity verification protocols. This is a responsibility of the federal government. The student who registers is the same student that participates and completes. Institutions should have systems to monitor repetition of IP and email addresses.
  • If a fee is required for student identity such as a proctored exam, the institution must disclose the cost at the time of registration.
  • HLC guidelines align with C-RAC. All require evidence around what activities support.
  • Clearly demonstrate institutional capacity, planning, quality, support, and evaluation relative to distance education.
  • Ensure distance education is integrated into assurance argument.

Be sure to focus on the CRAC Guidelines as these are criteria used by HLC for distance education.

Presentation Files:

Educational Technology Organization of Michigan (ETOM) and Michigan Colleges Online (MCO) Updates

Ronda Edwards (MCO Executive Director), Carl Weckerle (ETOM President), Stacy Whiddon (President-Elect). Ronda will provide an update on MCO initiatives and issues around online learning – including, SARA, accessibility, group technology purchases, MCO OER repository, MCO professional development series for 2018-2019. Carl and Stacy will provide an update on recent ETOM initiatives and lead a discussion on future ETOM member benefits.

ETOM vision and mission statements have been revised.

  • ETOM Vision StatementETOM is the premier instructional technology-focused post-secondary entity in the state of Michigan. We provide access to high quality, low cost professional development activities and certification focused on educational technology and distance learning.  ETOM provides a network for sharing and collaboration among faculty and staff.  By maintaining a strong relationship with the Michigan Colleges Online (MCO), ETOM is recognized as the primary source for professional development relating to successful post-secondary student learning through technology in the State of Michigan.
  • ETOM Mission StatementThe Educational Technology Organization of Michigan is a non-profit organization dedicated to the use of instructional technologies in higher education with an emphasis on distance learning. Established in December of 1980, ETOM has, and continues to be, a valuable resource for Michigan community colleges, universities, related businesses, other educational organizations and interested individuals.
  • 2018 Plans
    • New this year will be a year long calendar of events that include conferences as well as monthly meet ups.
    • This Fall the ETOM conference will be held on November 2 at Macomb Community College. Keynote speaker will be Michelle Pacansky-Brock who will talk on the topic of Humanizing Online Education.
    • Meet up topics to include guest speakers or experts on a variety of topics: quality, accessibility, OER, online orientations, academic integrity, HLC, QM, etc.

Michigan Colleges Online

  • OER Initiative
    • Goals: improving student success and completion, lowering costs for students, increasing inter-institutional faculty collaboration
    • Developed a MCO microsite repository on OER Commons
    • Over $4 million of savings just last year. 15 schools are involved in the OER initiative.
    • Faculty grants have been offered in OER adoption, adaption, and development categories.
    • 5 OER faculty conversations have occurred through online webinars.
    • Michigan OER Summit will be held on September 21, 2018 hosted by St. Clair County Community College, Port Huron.
  • MCO Accessibility Community of Practice
    • Share knowledge and review best practices that can assist colleges as they become compliant with federal regulations.
    • MCO shared a 9 key items that colleges should address to begin to be compliant.  Webinars have been also created for web content, procurement, etc. Agendas will be forthcoming.
  • MCO Collaborative Programs Initiative
    • Goal to build capacity in financial model for high cost low enrollment programs.
    • Additional sessions will continue for a collaborative programs: eg. MRI Associate Degree, Computed Tomography Certificate, EEG Technician Certificate with option for an Associate Degree.
  • Collaborative Purchases
    • BlackBeltHelp – US based help desk call center. Licensed reduced costs close to 45% off standard rates.
    • Fit Faculty – Qualifications management software.
  • Professional Development
    • Landscape of Web Accessibility in Higher Ed
    • FitFaculty
    • Ready Set Go – Developing a CBE Program
    • MCO/TechSmith Vendor Program
    • Creating an Accessible Syllabus
    • MCO Repository Group Training
    • MCO OER Faculty Conversations for Science, Math, Composition, History, and Psychology
    • Creating Accessible PowerPoint and PDF Files
    • Intellis Learning Demo
    • Kaltura Video Platform Demo
    • NetTutor Demonstration
  • Stats
    • Online enrollment growth is up 5%. ITC reports 8% increase from Fall 2016-17.
    • Online students – 40% male 60% female, ages 18-25 60%, and reside locally.

Accessibility in Action Across the College – Roundtable

Shaelynn Long-Kish, Mid Michigan Community College

  • Discussions on how many colleges have received OCR complaints and the process for campuses to bring new awareness for the importance of accessibility.

Save the Date for the ETOM Fall Conference!


About ETOM

ETOM – Educational Technology Organization of Michigan
Michigan’s Distance Learning Resource

The Educational Technology Organization of Michigan is a non-profit organization dedicated to the use of instructional telecommunications in higher education with an emphasis on distance learning. Established in December of 1980, ETOM has, and continues to be, a valuable resource for Michigan colleges and universities, related businesses, other educational organizations, and other interested individuals.


Emerging Technologies: Augmented Reality Round Table

On Thursday, April 19, Eric Kunnen and Hunter Bridwell from eLearning, along with Kristofer Pachla, director of the GVSU Regional Math and Science Center, attended a round table discussion focused on augmented reality at Miller Johnson offices in Grand Rapids.

The round table was an outstanding morning of conversations and possibilities that augmented reality and bring to education, government, and commercial applications such as:

  • Interior Design
  • Facilities Viewing / Models Onsite
  • Asset Management
  • Complex Assembly and Error Reduction
  • Realtime Data Visualization
  • Learning / Experiential
  • Healthcare
  • and more!

Hunter and Eric had an opportunity to share how GVSU is exploring augmented and virtual reality through the Atomic Object Technology Showcase. They also were able to  experience the innovative DAQRI helmet and smart glasses first-hand!

Ottawa County Technology Forum

2018 Technology Forum – Innovation & Technology


Menlo Innovations Slides and Presentation Information

KEY TO SUCCESS: “Foster human relationships and built with human energy – pump fear out of the room.”

Why joy?

  • Joy Inc. Book
  • Purpose driven work life – who do you serve and what does delight look like for them? Who are your “end users” of the software and services you create and offer?
  • Does joy matter? Is it visible?

“The Click Moment” – Ways to work within an organization…

  • IDEO
  • Extreme Programming Explained
  • The Deep Dive
  • The Click Moment

Tear Down the Walls!

  • Open office format. Do these work? Yes! Why does this work? Menlo Innovations built an open and collaborative culture. Team work, transparency, collaboration are parts of the culture.
  • Embrace noice
  • Embrace teamwork – see teamwork
  • Flexible and visual work space – set the space to how they choose
  • Organize the team, connect the team, and learning happens
  • Two people > One computer
  • Stand up meetings (eg. 15 minutes with 50 staff – with report outs in teams of 2).
  • Pairs are assigned and then they rotate after 5 days
  • Conversations, rituals, and artifacts – “the most exciting breakthroughs of the 21st century will not occur because of technology but because of an expanding concept of what it means to be human”. (John Naisbitt, Megatrends)
  • Use paper and pencil tools as needed… don’t have to be high tech!

The Power of Observation

  • Anthropology, study people, observe them – in their native environment, look for the invisible, be the empath!
  • Empathy of end users is critical. High tech anthropology. Learn about the users and understand what works and what doesn’t at the end user level. Focus on the end user experience.
  • Build delightful learning experiences for users and their needs.
  • Fight fear, embrace change.
  • Let’s try running with the idea – run the experiment/pilot – before defeating it.

Affordances – The worker/workplace relationships… by Haworth Inc.


  • Doing your “mind’s best work”


  • Nurturing your psychological state


  • Support in your corporal needs

Adaptive Connections with Clients and Community

  • Matterhorn by Court Innovations
  • Online dispute resolution

BIS Digital

  • Capture the Record – Digital course recorder for court proceedings, interviews, transcripts, record keeping
  • DCR Presentation and Annotation Technology for meetings.
  • Interview Room Recorder – Live and record playback.
  • Meeting Recorder – 32 channels of audio and 4 channels of video.

Expectations of a Constantly Connected Workforce

  • Michael Hakkarinen, Instructional Technologies Specialist, Utah Education Network
  • @edtechakk
  • Diversity contributes to disruptive innovation
  • Google it… docs, calendar, research, spreadsheets, etc.
  • 4 C’s = collaboration, critical thinking, creativity, communication
  • SAMR Technology Adoption Model = substitution, augmentation, modification, redefinition
  • Code.org
  • Swift app for coding
  • Sphero
  • Gamification
  • Badging
  • Ready Player One Movie
  • Slides available at: edtechakk.weebly.com

Sentinel Technologies

  • Work is no longer a place / collaboration

Accelerated Knowledge

Implementing Change – Quick start tools to accelerate strategic change.

  • Why change management.
  • Manage resistance to change.
  • Why people change.
  • Managing change is managing the resistance to Change

Black Box AI – Jason Sosa

  • Black Box AI
  • Focus on machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, Blockchain, and tech to solve business problems.

#MACUL18 – Changing the Narrative

Closing Keynote: Changing the Narrative Joe Sanfelippo. Superintendent, Fall Creek School District (WI)

Joe Sanfelippo is the Superintendent of the Fall Creek School District in Fall Creek, Wisconsin, home of the Crickets and an Innovative District in 2016 and 2017 by the International Center for Leadership in Education. Joe co-hosts the Hacking Leadership Podcast and co-authored The Power of Branding: Telling Your School’s Story, Principal Professional Development: Leading Learning in a Digital Age, and Hacking Leadership: 10 Ways Great Leaders Inspire Learning That Teachers, Students, and Parents Love. He was selected as a Future Ready Superintendent in 2014 and a Personalized Learning Leader by the US Department of Education in 2016. He holds a BA, two Masters of Science, and a PhD.


  • Moment of Awe – Stop in your tracks, take it in, appreciate.
  • Today I shall behave as if this is the day I will be remembered – Dr. Seuss
  • Be. Proud. – Don’t defend the work, celebrate the work!
  • Let’s tell the story and tell the narrative.
  • “I’m just a teacher” NO “I’m a teacher”
  • In the absence of knowledge people make up their own. – Hacking Leadership
  • Culture first always, share the story. Change it in 30 seconds.
  • Every single time you connect with someone in your school community you are building or killing culture.
  • Culture / Trust – Building trust with your community.
  • Let’s stop thinking of school as something we pay for and start thinking about school as something we invest in.
  • Hacking Leadership Book
  • Build the culture, capture the stories, share share share
  • Internetlivestats.com

#MACUL18 – Putting Learning First, Technology Second

Putting Learning First, Technology Second

Liz Kolb, Clinical Associate Professor, University of MichiganGrand Gallery A (DeVos)


  • PearDeck Slide Code: huuan
  • It all started in 1996 with… PowerPoint!
  • Technology can grab attention but does it change understanding and learning?
  • How do you know if #edtech is effective in your classroom?
  • What does engagement mean and what does it look like in your classroom?

  • How can we make learning experiences… authentic with high attention and high commitment.
  • What do we know about how students learn best? What does the research say?
  • Reflection – thinking about what they are doing/experiencing, teaching others, discovery-based, real-world application, when they are challenged and in the zone of proximal development, repetition, interactive, hands-on, inquiry-based
  • Use caution with “educational” apps as there really isn’t criteria for what makes an app educational in category. Many software companies don’t have an experienced educator on the team.
  • Learning with #edtech should be about quality not quantity.
  • One research study indicated purposeful and blended approaches seem to be better than “every day”

  • Wowzers Video
  • What distracts students from learning? What is distracting in the Wowzers video?
  • USF Video
  • What is beneficial about the USF video? Collaborative, it wasn’t about the technology but it supports the learning.
  • Learning is SOCIAL!

  • Shared experiences are important vs being together and isolated experiences.
  • Technology provides formative opportunities for feedback through data measurement.
  • Engagement is social > time on task > and focus so that tech should not distract from the process of learning.
  • Learning happens when tools illicit higher-cognitive skills.
  • Learning happens best when it’s connected to everyday life with classroom learning.
  • Key to success when integrating technology is the teacher’s use of instructional strategies and pedagogical strategies when integrating digital technologies, not the tool itself.
  • Triple E Framework

#MACUL18 – Rethinking Assessment: Digital Tools to Engage, Assess, and Differentiate

Rethinking Assessment: Digital Tools to Engage, Assess, and Differentiate

Becky Shiring, @beckyshy, Director of Professional Development and Continued Learning, Squirrels, LLCGallery Overlook E


  • What is the PURPOSE of assessments?
  • PADLET – Introductions
  • WHY do we assess our students?
    • To measure achievement, understanding, outcomes, objectives, drive instruction are they ready to move on, to see if we taught what we intended, to see what they know before we teach. Mastery of skills, standards, evaluate progress, provides channel of feedback, motivates students.
  • What are the BENEFITS of using technology to assess?
    • Quick feedback, collaboration, captures data/evidence, track common misunderstandings, more engaging for the kids (Kahoot), quickly capture data, easily shareable, engages students, immediate feedback, permanence of learning, ownership, authentic tasks.
  • TYPES of Assessment
    • Check for understanding for researching opportunities before they get to the end. Are the students ready before summative. Low stakes, ongoing, feedback, assessment FOR learning
    • High stakes, end of unit, evaluation, assessment OF learning.
  • “When the cook tastes the soup that’s formative, when the guests taste the soup it’s summative.”
  • Types of Adjustments
    • In the moment adjustments (Kahoots, stop light cards, exit ticket, etc.), next class, last chance (just before the “big test”), learning approach adjustments (student driven, they way they take notes, student reflections, they way the student owns their learning and the teacher guides), classroom climate adjustments (learning for all vs competitive, student ownership of data and mindset). Quick Checks for Understanding vs a long formal quiz that can’t allow quick on-the-fly teaching adjustments.
  • Corrective Instruction and the Formative Assessment Cycle (Plan > Teach > Assess > Analyze Data/Student Work > Adapt/ReAssess)
  • “Virtual Corkboards” – Supports multiple formats, mobile app, personalization, exit tickets, thinking maps, KWL, group projects, comments for peer/teacher feedback.
  • PADLET has new features for profanity filters, up and down voting, linking, custom urls, etc. Upload, links, Google images, Snap, Film, Voice, Draw, Map, PADLET link. All in the free version.

  • NoteApp and Stormboard are other options.
  • Simple Media Tools – Demonstrate understanding, apply concepts to new contexts, highly engaging, promotes new media literacy.
  • Dvolver MovieMaker allows students to develop cartoon movies for scenarios, projects, assignments, etc.
    • Dvolver, Breaking News Generator, BigHugLabs
    • ISTE Standards – Supports creators of their own content.

  • Quick Response – Easy, on the spot, quick activities
    • Write Surge (quick writing tool), SketchBook (create book for drawing, ideas into a sketch), AutoDraw (quick drawing tool for creating great looking graphics), TodaysMeet
  • Video Clippers – Pause video and ask questions, effective for flipping classrooms
    • EdPuzzle, PlayPosit, Spiral.ac

  • Student Response Systems – Game based learning, instant feedback, device agnostic, gauge student interest, exports data
  • ATLAS Protocol – Learning from Student Work

What are some other technology tools that you have used for formative assessment?